Extrait: Bergamot FCF.
Production: Cold expression from peel of citrus bergamia.
Use in Perfumery: Extensively in Classical Eaux de Colognes, Chypre and Fougère as a top note with fresh, sweet, rich, lemon pepper floral character which imparts lightness.
Safety: Use only furanocoumarin free (FCF) as this constituent is photo toxic.
Comment: Indispensable as a top note.
Extrait: Bitter Orange
Production: Cold expression from peel of citrus aurantium var. amara.
Origin: South America.
Use in Perfumery: Can be used in Classical Eaux de Colognes, Chypre and Fougère blends as a top note to impart a fresh, slightly bitter, orangey character with a pithy backnote.
Safety: Do not exceed 1.4% in final blend.
Comment: Indispensable as a top note. More interesting and tenacious than sweet orange
Production: Cold pressed from the fresh fruit of citrus medica Linn.
Use in Perfumery: The fruit is similar to a lemon but larger and has a thick sweet smelling skin. The aroma of the oil is unmistakably lemon in quality but it is more floral, sweet and softer than even the finest Sicilian cold pressed lemon oil. The sharpness expected from citrus oils is reduced – a very clean citrus oil that invokes an early Mediterranean summer. Useful oil for the citrus floral palette in fine perfumery.
Extrait: Grapefruit, Yellow.
Production: Cold expression from peel of citrus paradisi.
Origin: Israel, USA.
Use in Perfumery: Top note in citrus and Cologne blends to impart fresh non-green sharpness, body and tenacity.
Safety: Do not exceed 4% in final blend.
Comment: Citrus oils are normally produced as a by-product of the juice industry. The trend in the market is to feed us more and more sugar so consumer preference is now for red grapefruit juice, consequently yellow grapefruits are more scarce. The yellow oils cost more than the red for this reason alone. The nuketone content provides grapefruit with its ‘bite’ and even though this is a trace element the difference between 0.05% and 0.07% is fairly significant. The red grapefruit oil is much lower in nuketone than the yellow. We prefer the tang and ‘bite’of the yellow to the fruitiness of the red, which can be invoked more economically by judicious blending of sweet orange, mandarin and lime.
Extrait: Green Mandarin
Production: Cold expression from peel of unripe citrus reticulata.
Use in Perfumery: As a light top note with fresh, sweet, green citrus character.
Safety: Normal usage.
Comment: Indispensable as a top note. Imparts interest to citrus blends and sharpness to floral blends. Mandarin is produced three times a year. The first time is when the fruit naturally falls from the trees before it is ripe and this fruitfall is used to make green mandarin. The fruit is later thinned by hand and these fruits go for yellow mandarin production and finally, the ripe fruit is used to produce the red mandarin.
Extrait: Lime Oil Distilled
Production: Steam distillation from the peel of citrus aurantifolia.
Use in Perfumery: As a fresh sweet fruity citrus lime top note in Eaux de Colognes.
Safety: This distilled oil is not phototoxic like the expressed variety.
Comment: Use with discretion as it can easily overwhelm but used carefully it can provide a delicate lift to green florals.
Extrait: Litsea Cubeba
Production: Steam distillation from ripe fruits of tetranthera polyantha.
Origin: China, S.E. Asia.
Use in Perfumery: A sweet fresh lemony middle note with more intensity and tenacity than lemon. It smells more like lemon than lemon and adds body to citrus blends, though it can be somewhat coarse on its own.
Safety: Normal usage
Comment: A good substitute for lemon, which has a tendency to oxidise and is phototoxic. The name Cubeba comes from the shape of the fruits. It is known in China as May Chang. See lemon myrtle.
Extrait: Neroli Bigarade
Production: Steam distillation from blossoms of citrus aurantium var. amara.
Use in Perfumery: A light floral slightly bitter top note with a herby green freshness which leaves a trace of orange blossom in the dry out phase. Neroli softens citrus blends and imparts freshness and definition to florals. Important ingredient in classical Eaux de Colognes.
Safety: Normal usage
Comment: Invaluable versatile ingredient.
Extrait: Petitgrain Oil Bigarade
Production: Steam distilled from the leaves and twigs of citrus aurantium var .amara.
Use in Perfumery: Fresh orangey floral top note with bitter herbal and woody backnotes.
Safety: Normal usage
Comment: Often used as a cheaper alternative to neroli but invaluable in its own right for the tenacity and body it brings to Eaux de Colognes and Fougère blends.
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